Choosing a good flashlight: Guide on Terminology

Few things are more precious to a  survival enthusiast during the night than his flashlight (and bonfire). And this is that the lighting is very important in camping and night walks in the mountains. Nowadays the old flashlights are not enough and we have modern LED flashlights for all tastes and situations.

There are flashlights of multiple sizes and designs designed to carry on the key ring, pouch, backpacks, car, head, camping out … Of course, we also have a good range of prices. Choosing a flashlight requires at least a small reflection as it can become a high investment, and so we should know some of its features and components.


Parts of a flashlight

A little theory

The most important part logically is the led and this will depend on the brightness and consumption of our flashlight. So let’s focus on learning a little theory about leds.

I will try to explain it quickly and easily. The information that you can find in the lanterns, regarding the lighting, will be lumens and sometimes candles, viewing angle and/or lighting distance. Let’s explain these concepts and the difference between them.

Lumens: is the brightness, the total amount of light emitted by the LED, regardless of how it is distributed. The higher the lumens the faster the flashlight battery drains.

Candelas: It is the intensity of the light, that is to say, as it disperses that light emitted by the LED. It is measured as lumens between the solid angle.

Finally, the lumens emitted by the LED between the solid angle gives us the number of candelas. The candles give us an idea of how light is dispersed. (If you get lost do not worry that now you will understand better)

Lux: And how much light is spread on the surface to which I am pointing my flashlight? For that is the lux, which indicates the number of lumens per square meter of surface. Remember, the candles tell us how light is dispersed in space and the luxes as it is distributed when projected onto a surface.

Logically, the more angle of illumination offered by the flashlight, the light emitted (lumens) will disperse more (fewer candles) and less light will reach that surface to which we are pointing (lux).
If you have two flashlights with the same amount of lumens but different angle of dispersion, the higher angle will distribute more light so it will be characterized by fewer candles, luxes and less lighting distance. The lesser light angle scattered less light and can get to illuminate a greater distance, but at the cost of seeing worse what, there is to the sides.

Color: this is already difficult to specify. There are LEDs that offer good brightness but then turn out to be flashlights with an “unpleasant” light, which pulls towards greenish or violet tones. The shades of light vary due to the color of the resin covered by the LED.

Warmth: many of you may have heard of cold light or warm light. That gives us an idea of how similar to the light of the Sun is the light emitted by an LED. The cold lights are typical of the first LEDs that appeared and light bulbs of low consumption or fluorescent, the typical ones of the kitchens and schools. The warm lights are like those of old incandescent filament bulbs, which offer a more yellowish light. A warm light helps to distinguish real colors better since our eye is better adapted for this type of lights.

Asian culture

Culture profoundly influences the way people perceive themselves in society. These perceptions are difficult to express because in the majority of cases they are internalized, but they are revealed in behaviors and especially in consumer behavior. This is one of the ways individuals express their personality and aspirations.


The most marked difference between Western culture and Asian culture is undoubtedly the relationship to the group. Indeed, Asian societies are strongly collectivist, whereas Western societies are rather individualistic. Asians need to find a place in society.

In Asian societies, it is important to belong to a group. They must absolutely be accepted by their peers, rejection, and exclusion being very scary subjects for them, individual desires being secondary.

The relationship to self-esteem is also different between American culture and Asian culture. American education, for example, attempts to instill in students a high self-esteem to stimulate desire and self-confidence. Whereas Asian education, on the other hand, emphasizes modesty and discretion. This is why men who move to Asia for sex tourism are looked down upon.

Statutory products arrive in Asia

Status in Asian society is therefore very important, which is why they attach great importance to their dress and their attitudes. When they buy a product, the price, the brand and the presentation of the product must match their social status.

Conspicuous consumption

The importance given to social recognition makes Asians the consumers most attentive to their image. The importance of the status imposes in fact to project the “good” image, which generally corresponds to Western high-end products. Hierarchical differences must be clearly visible to all. That’s why luxury groups sells more than half of its products to Asian consumers.

Pet Fleas Treatment

Many owners of dogs and cats are unhappy, some are desperate. They have treated their pets with flea products, and yet the fleas are still there. Their first reflex is to say that the product used is not effective.

It is a cause of failure that can not be excluded, but it is certainly not the main cause: to get rid of pet fleas, there are rules to respect.

Use a suitable anti-cholesterol product: ask your veterinarian for advice. Your veterinarian will prescribe the best treatment for your pet, depending on its species, lifestyle, and age.

Beware, there are dozens of products marketed to fight fleas of dogs and cats, and some of them have not proven their effectiveness.

Apply the necessary quantity: follow the instructions for use. If you are not sure of the weight of your companion, weigh it before treating it. Whatever the quality of the product used, an under-dosing will lead to failure.

Do not overdo it either, an excess is dangerous for your pet’s health.

Repeat the treatment regularly: the main cause of failure of the flea treatments is the forgetting of the renewal! It is not enough to treat your pet once so that it is cleared of fleas for the rest of his days.

All treatments must be renewed at fixed dates, at different intervals depending on the product used: every month (for pipettes and certain tablets), every 3 months (for certain tablets), every 6 months (for certain necklaces ). In all cases, respect the rhythm of administration prescribed by your veterinarian.

Treat all your dogs and cats: if one of your dogs or cats has fleas, then they all have them, even if you do not see them. If you have several animals, it is essential to treat them at the same time, with a product adapted to each one of them.

Beware, some products designed for dogs are extremely toxic to cats.

The main source of contamination of dogs and cats is the environment, so seek advice from your veterinarian to minimize the risk of contamination. Fleas are not born on animals but in their environment. In hot, humid weather, it can harbor tens of thousands of young fleas.

If you feel that the product put on your mate does not work, then do not hesitate to treat his environment. It is very likely that the chips you see are fleas that have just contaminated your pet and have not yet been killed by the flea product.

There are products specially designed for this purpose. They have a prolonged action and allow to treat the sleeping, the parquet floors, the carpets. Maintain a good composting so that the contamination will not spread out in the entire home.

Your veterinarian will explain to you how to use them.

Characteristics of Good Composting

An organic residue is transformed into an extraordinary fertilizer amendment. They act on the macromolecular nutrients, taking them to states directly assimilable by plants, which is manifested in remarkable improvements in the organoleptic qualities of fruits and flowers and better resistance to pathogens.

Accelerates root development and physiological processes of budding, flowering, maturity, flavor, and color. Improving the general condition of plants increases their resistance to pest and pathogen attack and frost resistance.

The microbial action of compost makes assimilable for plants inert materials such as phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, as well as micro and trace elements.

Its richness in trace elements makes it a complete fertilizer. Provides plants with substances necessary for their metabolism. It can be used at high doses without contraindications, as it does not burn plants, not even the most delicate ones.

It also contains hormones, growth regulators, and promoters of the vital functions of plants. It is composed mainly of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and a large number of microorganisms are also present.

It also adds organic material to the soil, increases the permeability of clay soils and increases the water retention capacity of sandy soils, promotes root growth and creates spaces for air and water.

Compost is classified as a soil conditioner rather than fertilizer. To be classified as fertilizer would have to have higher levels of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. The finished compost adds these and other elements, but is of slower effects than chemical fertilizers, and increases the availability of these elements in the soil. Compost plays a transcendent role in correcting and improving the physical, chemical and biological conditions of soils.

Enough of all that scientific jargon. There are some different ways to apply some of these things. The first thing that you need to do is get a good waste grinder for the sink. Visit to see some examples of good products.

The next thing that you need to do is to have a good bin outdoors. The bin must be used as well remember.


Kia ora koutou

Christchurch continues to shake with three major earthquakes and over 7000 after- shocks, parts of our city are like living in a warzone.

There are significant numbers of families still without use of water or sewerage. Some of whom have been living in these sub-standard conditions for over 9 months, since September last year.

Winter is upon us and sub-zero temperatures are bringing a new set of challenges to Christchurch families already under stress. No longer able to stay with family and friends or in temporary accommodation, hundreds have returned to their damaged homes. Many are living in only one or two rooms struggling to find warmth, pay for increased power, replace bedding/ basics and to provide winter shoes and clothing for themselves and their children.

Delays in EQC and insurance company claims are not helping recovery which seems at times further away than ever.

Your donation goes beyond giving immediate practical assistance. It is a wonderful morale boost for every adopted family to know that you care. Please read our thank you page. A special thank you to Marie-Ann Billens and Estee Lauder Companies for their most generous donation of $150,000.

Our volunteers have worked tirelessly to feedback to you on where your donation has been placed. To date over 500 familes have been adopted, receiving between $100 and $3000. If you have not received notification of how your donation has been spent please email –

If you haven’t donated please sign onto, your donation is needed now much more than ever.